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To make an Excel cell reference absolute rather than relative, you need to add a dollar sign before the column and/or row reference.
To do this automatically, click into the cell reference in the formula bar and press F4. If you select more than one cell reference in a formula, all selected parts will become absolute.
If you press F4 repeatedly, you will see that Excel toggles through the four stages of absolute/relative references.
|Jennifer Mathes, Ph.D.|